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Investing in Africa
Investing in Africa even sounds a little extreme. But investing in Africa not only sound extremely - it is like this in fact. If we would distinguish developed and emerging markets, then most of the Africa’s countr
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Investing in Russia
  Investing in Russia has gotten really widely promoted for the last period. I can remember the talks that stocks in Russia are the cheapest over the world for not less than year. The fact, that those stocks are st
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Where Are the Investment Markets Moving Now?
  Some of the market participants call the current situation a “crisis” others are starting to be convinced that we are in a bear market. While others just don’t know how to call it. Well, I call
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Interest Coverage Ratio
  Interest coverage ratio shows company’s ability to pay interests for its financial debts. Interest coverage ratio is a ratio between operating profit (EBIT to be more exact) and expenses for interests. The
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/interest_coverage_ratio

Investment in Bonds
Debt (fixed income) securities Bonds are fixed income securities and the principle of them is simple - the issuer of the bonds attracts the money from the investors and commits to pay back for the investors until end of
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Stock Market
  A stock market represents all the stocks (shares) that are issued and traded or just held. Stock market (equity market) is a part of a whole financial market but more extensive term than Stock Exchange. Stock Exc
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Book Value of Share
  A book value of share is calculated dividing all company’s book value (less preferred equity) by its common share number. For example, if company’s book value is 1,000,000 USD and issued share nu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/book_value_of_share

Stock Book Value
  Stock book value is a book value of one share. It is calculated dividing shareholders equity by share number and gives some very approximate investing guidance about the value of the stock. It is popular to look
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stock_book_value

Buying on Margin
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     Buying on margin gets popularity during every strong bull market. Unfortunately, it be
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/buying_on_margin

Capital Investment Group
  Capital investment group is an organization that can have many juridical forms. Usually capital investment group is privately held or public organization, that invests in stakes of non-listed companies, real esta
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capital_investment_group

Venture Capital
  A venture capital is a capital provided by capital investment groups or private equity funds for small start up businesses.   There are not many opportunities for young fast growing companies. If they
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Private equity Fund
  A private equity fund is a fund that invests in a stakes of non-listed companies (private equity). Investment in private equity funds is much different from investment in mutual funds. They are illiquid, riskier
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equity Fund
  An equity fund is a mutual fund that is investing in equity (stocks). equity fund can be actively managed, index fund, listed index fund (ETF) and can invest in some specific sectors or regions, or can invest glo
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Investment Banking Services
Investment banking services are corporate finance services provided by investment banks. Investment banking includes such services like capital rising, securities issuing, IPO’s running, mergers and acquisitions
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Risk-Free Interest Rate
  A risk-free interest rate  is rate of interests that would be paid by fixed income securities that contains no risk at all.    For a very long time short-term US Treasury securities was used to d
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/riskfree_interest_rate

Enterprise Value
  Enterprise value (EV) is a financial measure that is used to reflect the magnitude of the business. If market capitalization shows only the value of shareholders equity, enterprise value includes both: equity val
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Corporate Finance
  Corporate finance is a niche of finance that deals with financial questions related to corporations.    The main goal of every company should be stockholders wealth maximization, but to achieve that m
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Financial Leverage
  A financial leverage is a use of borrowed money to achieve more efficient capital structure. A borrowed capital is cheaper than equity capital most of the times. So usage of loaned money makes weighted average ca
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Direct Investments in Stocks
  Direct investments in stocks are investments made without financial intermediaries (only theoretically). It means an investor buys stock directly from the company without intermediation of stock exchange or broke
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Investment Management Fees
  Investment management fees (fees that are paid straight to investment manager) basically are one of these types:   Performance based fee. Performance based fee is calculated according to increase of inve
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Total Expense Ratio
  ‘Total expense ratio shows all expenses of investment fund. It is a good measure that shows you how much of different fees you are really paying when investing in some fund. Total expense ratio is a percent
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Margin Trading
  Margin trading is trading in securities when part of the investment portfolio is financed by borrowed money (the other part by your own capital). For example, you have investment portfolio of value $20k, end you
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Stagflation
  Stagflation is an economical situation, when high inflation and stagnation of the economy come together. It is very difficult situation, because it not allows using monetary politics efficiently to revitalize the
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Valuation Multiples
  Valuation multiples are stock ratios that include in the calculation share price and show whether stock is cheap or expensive compared to similar stocks.     Valuation multiples (or just multiples) ar
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P/B Ratio
P/B (P/Bv or price-to-book) ratio shows how expensive stock is compared to its books value. Company’s book value (also called equity, capital, shareholders funds etc.) is equal to company’s total assets les
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EV/S Ratio
Enterprise Value to Sales Ratio   EV/S ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its sales. This multiple is important when company is unprofitable or profits margins are very low and turnaround is expected in
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P/S Ratio
Price to Sales Ratio   P/S ratio shows the price of the stock compared to its sales. This ratio historically was quiet popular, but now EV/S ratio, which is more correct methodically, is used.   
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EV/EBITDA Ratio
EBITDA Multiple   EV/EBITDA ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization). EV to EBITDA multiple is mostly used by professionals because
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ev_ebitda_ratio

Cost of equity
  Cost of equity is the rate of return that is required by equity owners from their investment. Of course, requirements of the shareholders have to be real and meet market conditions as well. Basically cost of equi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_equity

Stock Valuation
  Stock valuation is very important part of investing in stocks, and this part is the most time consuming and knowledge requiring. Stock valuation is a necessary and main step at stock picking process. The only way
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Relative Valuation
Comparative analysis    Relative valuation is stock valuation method that gained its popularity because of simplicity and practical importance. The key principle of relative valuation is about valuation multi
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DCF Valuation
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/dcf_valuation

WACC
  WACC (Weighted Average Capital Cost) shows cost of capital when capital is consisted of both equity and debt capital. So WACC simply calculates the weighted average between equity cost and debt cost.  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/wacc

CAPM
  CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) is method widely used for equity cost calculation. equity cost should show the return that investor should expect/seek from an investment that contains specific level of risk.&n
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capm

Target Capital Structure
  Target capital structure is a mix of equity and debt capital that maximizes value of the shares. Target capital structure may be achieved when WACC (Weighted Average Capital Cost) is minimal. If proportion of equ
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/target_capital_structure

Profitability Margins
  Profitability margins are ratios that show how profitable company’s activity is. There may be many kinds of profitability margins. Normally profitability means some kind of profit divided by revenue. But al
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ROE
  ROE (Return on equity) shows profitability of company’s book value. Company’s book value (equity) is equal to company’s assets less liabilities, and ROE is usually higher if company ha
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/roe

ROA
  ROA (Return on Assets) shows what profits are earned by company’s assets. Of course, assets alone usually do not earn the profit, because most of the times profit is the result of know-how and hard work of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/roa

Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?     For the conclusion I would like to say that bu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/psychology_of_buying_on_margin_is_it_worth

equity Trading
  equity trading is a process when equities are bought and sold through a trading platform. equity trading is a synonym for trading stocks as equity in investment field is represented by stocks. Investing in equity
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/equity_trading

Leveraged Buyout
  A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a takeover of a company when debt capital is the main financing source for the acquisition and the acquired assets are used as collateral to receive the needed debt. The LBO may be exe
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/leveraged_buyout

High Return Investments
  High-return investments (or high-yield investments) are investments that can provide the higher return than average investments, and of course such investments are riskier. The reality is that people have differe
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Company Valuation
  Company valuation is the same as business valuation. The only difference between company valuation and business valuation may occur if value of company’s stocks has to be determined instead of the whole bus
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Stock Market Investing
  Stock market investing is investing in equity securities – stocks. Stock market investing differs from stock market trading because has longer term approach.    Stock markets cover stocks that a
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equity Investors
  equity investors are investors that are investing in equity investments: listed stocks or similar ownership securities, stock funds, unlisted stock stakes or other half-equity strategies (equity loan, mezzanine f
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/equity_investors

Private equity Investor
  Private equity investor is a corporation or individual that is investing in stakes of unlisted companies. The only different between equity investor and private equity investor is that the last one invests in unl
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Private Investors
  Private investors are individuals that are investing in to some assets for investment purpose. (1) There are two main types of investors: private investors and institutional investors (business investor). Also th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/private_investors

Finding Investors
  Finding investors might be a hard task if you have no required knowledge for that. Most probably you are looking some business investors or angel investors that would invest in to your business. And the success o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/finding_investors

Financial Statements
  Financial statements are periodically by the companies issued reports that provide the most important financial information about company’s financial condition and success of activity.    There
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Income Statement
  Income statement (also called statement of operations, profit and loss statement, P&L or other) is one of three main financial statements reported by the companies periodically. Income statement exposes compa
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Balance Sheet
  Balance sheet is one of the three main financial statements (others are income statement and cash flow statement). Balance sheet also might be called a statement of financial position because this statement expla
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Earnings
  Earnings are calculated gains of the company and should represent the profit of that business. There are several types of earnings:   Retained earnings are equal to net profit less dividends. Net earnin
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/earnings

Profit
  Profit is a term used in various finance fields and may have many meanings. Basically profit is the positive difference between the income and costs. If costs are higher than income, then instead of profit loss w
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/profit

Return
  Return analysis is different from profitability analysis because usually return is measured as a profitability of the assets, investments, capital or other similar asset group but not as a profitability of the re
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return

Solvency
  Solvency analysis takes an important part in financial analysis and mostly is used by creditors. Creditors of the business (bondholders, banks that provide loans) don’t care much if company’s profit w
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/solvency

Debt to equity
  Debt to equity ratio (also known as D/E ratio, Debt/equity) measures how big is company’s debt compared to its book capital (equity). The higher is the debt to equity ratio the higher is the insolvency risk
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/debt_to_equity

Debt to Asset Ratio
  Debt to asset ratio (also called as D/A ratio, Debt/Asset) measures how big is company’s debt compared to its assets. Debt to asset ratio is very similar to debt to equity (D/E) ratio but normally is lower
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/debt_to_asset_ratio

Debt to EBITDA
  Debt to EBITDA (also known as D/EBITDA or Debt/EBITDA) is widely used ratio that measures how big company’s debt is compared to its EBITDA (earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortization). EBI
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/debt_to_ebitda

Working Capital Management
  Why Working Capital Is Important? Working capital is one of the main parts of company’s finances and every manager, even of the small company, manages working capital despite the fact he knows about that o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/working_capital_management

Cost of Debt
  Cost of debt shows what the capital cost of the company for its debt capital is. Basically company’s capital consists of two parts: debt capital and equity capital. (A mixed capital like mezzanine financing
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt

Price to Free Cash Flow
  Price to free cash flow (P/FCF) or EV/FCF ratio are ratios that compare company's price to its free cash flow. The main difference between those two ratios is that EV/FCF also includes the eff
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/price_to_free_cash_flow

Price to Cash Flow Ratio
  Price to cash flow ratio (P/CF) and EV/CF ratio are similar but there are some differences. The main difference is that EV/CF also includes the effect of company’s financial debt which says a different
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/price_to_cash_flow_ratio

Free Cash Flow Yield
  Free cash flow yield (FCF yield) show how much of cash that may be distributed to shareholders the business earns compared to its price on the stock exchange (including both: equity value and debt value or just e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/free_cash_flow_yield

Minority Interest
  Minority interest (non-controlling interest) is a part of net income or of an equity that does not belong to the shareholders of the main group. Basically there are two types of the minority interest:  
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Cost of Capital
  Capital of every company consists of two parts: equity capital and debt capital (only if company has no financial debts it has only equity capital). Both these capital sources have their costs and this is cost of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_capital

NOPAT
  NOPAT (‘net operating profit after tax’ or ‘after tax operating profit’) is equal to operating profit less taxes. It is adjusted by tax rate because the part cost of debt which is part of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/nopat

Rate of Return
  A rate of return is a percentage that shows what is the profit or loss gained on some investment on annual basis. There are many ways to calculate the rate of return including internal rate of return, arithmetica
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/rate_of_return

Return on Invested Capital
  Return on invested capital (ROIC) or also called return on capital is a financial ratio employed to measure nominal company’s return that is earned by capital invested in operating asset. Basically return o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return_on_invested_capital

Financial Ratios
  Financial ratios are ratios that are used in financial analysis or in other words that are using financial data of a company. Such financial data usually is found in financial statements (income statement, balanc
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Capital Employed
  Capital employed is a value of capital investments in a company. Basically, the capital of each company can be classified in these types of capital: equity capital  Debt capital Working capital  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capital_employed

equity Ratio
  equity ratio is a financial ratio that compares company’s equity to assets. Basically, it shows what part equity capital makes in total capital of a company. If ‘equity ratio’ is very high (clos
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/equity_ratio

Return on Capital Employed
  Return on capital employed ratio (ROCE) measures company’s return compared to its employed capital. Return in this case is some kind of profit (mostly EBIT or NOPAT) and the capital employed means equity ca
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return_on_capital_employed

Net Interest Margin
Net interest margin shows the profitability of the lending business for a bank or other financial institution. Lending business is the core business for most of the banks, and the profitability of this operational segmen
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/net_interest_margin

equity to Asset Ratio
  equity to asset ratio measures company’s riskiness by comparing its equity to its assets. If this ratio is very low (lower than 0.3), it might mean that company may be at risk if conditions of the market wo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/equity_to_asset_ratio

Asset to equity Ratio
  Asset to equity ratio compares company’s assets to the book value and measures the riskiness of the company. This ratio cannot be lower than 1.0, and if it is equal to 1, it means that assets are equal to e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/asset_to_equity_ratio

Total Debt Ratio
  Total debt ratio compares total liabilities to total assets. The higher ratio represents riskier situation. And if this ratio is equal to 1.0, it would mean that liabilities are equal to assets or in other words
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/total_debt_ratio

Non-Operating Assets
  Non-operating assets are assets of the company that aren’t used in the main activity of the company. Such assets can be either financial or non-financial. This asset type is very important during the valuat
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/nonoperating_assets

Book Value
  There are two main types of values that are used in finance: Book value  Market value   Book value is a value that is recorded in the balance sheet of a company. Every asset of the company must
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Leverage
Leverage definition In finance leverage means usage of debt capital in addition to the equity capital in order to increase the profit. Increase in leverage is understood as increase in riskiness and volatility.  
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Market Risk Premium
(equity Risk Premium)   Every investment carries some level of risk and some level of potential return. Those two measures are closely related in investment finance and are used in CAPM which calculates cost of eq
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_risk_premium

Load Fee
  'Load fee' is a fee that is paid during the selling process of the mutual fund. The sales load fee is also called as sales fee or distribution fee because normally it is paid by investor during sales-distribution
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/load_fee

Internal Rate of Return
  An internal rate of return (IRR) is a ratio used very often to measure a profitability of some investment project. IRR is determined as a discount rate when NPV of the project is equal to zero. If IRR is higher t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/internal_rate_of_return


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